Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 # (Tugas 3)

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Nama : Tedy Hardyansyah
Npm : 10209357
Kelas : 4 EA 17
Dosen : R. OEGIH SUGESTI
Matkul : Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 #
A. Question tag.
- Pengertian : Question Tags (Pertanyaan Tegas) adalah suatu pertanyaan pendek di akhir kalimat pernyataan yang berfungsi untuk mempertegas pernyataan yang bersangkutan.
- Example :
1. Your parents came last night, didn’t they ?
2. You can swim, can’t you ?
3. I can help you, can’t I ?
4. We must hurry, mustn’t we ?
5. Pedro speaks Spanish, doesn’t he ?
6. They don’t want to play cards, do they?
7. Jane doesn’t know him, does she ?
8. Jack doesn’t speak French, does he ?
9. Your cat doesn’t like cheese, does it ?
10. Peter didn’t come, did he ?
B. Conditional sentences.
- Pengertian : Conditional Sentences (Kalimat Pengandaian) adalah suatu bentuk kalimat majemuk yang dapat kita gunakan ketika kita ingin mengatakan bahwa sesuatu tersebut adalah suatu akibat atau konsekuensi yang tergantung pada situasi lainnya. Di dalamnya terdapat klausa pengandaian (IF CLAUSE) dan klausa akibat (RESULT CLAUSE). Pada bentuk conditional sentences kita menggunakan kata “if (jika)”.
- Example :
1. If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.
2. If I see you tomorrow, I will buy you a drink
3. If I won the lottery, I would buy a new house.
4. If I had worked harder,I would have passed my exam
5. If I hadn’t helped you, you would have failed
6. If it had been sunny, we could have gone out.
7. I would buy a new car, if I won the competition
8. I won’t mark your homework, unless you hand it in.
9. Unless you hand in your homework, I won’t mark it.
10. Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees Celsius.
C. Adjective and adverb.
1. Adverb
- Pengertian : Adverb (kata keterangan/tambahan) adalah kata yang dipakai untuk menerangkan bagian dari tata bahasa yang mana saja kecuali kata benda dan kata ganti.
- Example :
1. George writes carelessly.
2. I answered that his question easily.
3. Sally speaks softly.
4. I entered the classroom quietly because I was late.
5. Jack opened the heavy door slowly.
6. The old man carves wooden figures skillfully.
7. A busy executive usually has short conversations on the telephone.
8. The young man had a very good time at the picnic yesterday.
9. I write English articles continuously.
10. She has been singing a song beautifully for 6 minutes.
2. Adjective
- Pengertian : Adjective (kata sifat) adalah kata yang digunakan untuk memberi sifat pada kata benda. Tiap kata sifat mempunyai kekuatan yang bersifat membatasi, dan kata sifat itu boleh diberikan definisi sebagai kata yang digunakan untuk mebatasi pemakaian kata benda.
- Example :
1. Some ten men were absent.
2. Many a youth and many a maid, dancing neath the greenwood shade.
3. They have nopt shed a many tears.
4. She is so generous that the poors love her.
5. You told her to come here as soon as possible and I gave her the same answer.
6. She came one day to see me.
7. Some man called here this morning.
8. Any man could do that.
9. The weather is very cold.
10. The juice is sweet enough.
D. So and such
1. Bali is so beautiful that many visitors from around the world come to visit it.
2. The car was so amazing that everybody felt stunned.
3. The weather was so cold that we decided to stay inside.
4. The rain was so heavy that I was afraid to go out.
5. The man was so scared that he worried to watch the movie.
6. Ratna is such a smart girl that she always wins a competition.
7. He is such a good boy that we always miss him.
8. That was such an amazing car that amazed everybody.
9. It is such an expensive car that I won’t be able to buy it.
10. Was it such a good hotel that you stayed there longer?
E. yes and no question
- Pengertian : Yes or no questions adalah kalimat tanya yang memiliki ide jawaban hanya “YA” dan “TIDAK”.
- Rumus : Auxilary + Subject + Verb ?
- Example :
1. Is it a notebook ?
2. Is she secretary ?
3. Did you finish your homework?
4. Are you going to bed now?
5. Do you want to go to school?
6. Do you need some help?
7. Are you hungry?
8. Did we buy this apple?
9. Did he write this letter?
10. Did they make this kite?
F. Few, A Few
- Pengertian : Few / A few digunakan dengan kata benda yang dapat dihitung dan biasanya digunakan dalam kalimat positif. Few / A few selalu diikuti dengan kata benda yang dapat dihitung (Countable Noun). Arti kata dari “ A few “ adalah beberapa, sedangkan “ few “ adalah sangat sedikit bahkan hampir tidak ada.
- Example :
a. Few
1. There are very few chairs in the room
2. Few people can speak more than three languages
3. There are very few good restaurants in this town
4. Few Englishmen speak Spanish
5. Very few people go to the island.
b. A few
1. I know a few of them
2. He has a few flowers in his garden
3. The tree has only a few leaves
4. Mother bought a few potatoes
5. I give them a few eggs
G. Little, a little
- Pengertian : Little, a little digunakan dengan kata benda yang dapat dihitung dan biasanya digunakan dalam kalimat positif. Little, a little selalu diikuti dengan kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung (Uncountable Noun). Arti kata dari “a little “ adalah beberapa, sedangkan “Little “ adalah sangat sedikit bahkan hampir tidak ada.
- Example :
a. Little
1. Very little rain falls in the Sahara
2. He spends very little money
3. Fate gave him little happiness
4. There is very little ink in this pen
5. There’s little point in trying to mend it. You’ll never succeed!
b. A Little
1. He drinks a little coffee
2. There is a little sugar in the bowl
3. There is a little milk in the bottle
4. They have only a little food
5. I’ve got a little money left; let’s go and have a drink.
H. Enough
- Pengertian : Enough artinya cukup. Dapat berlaku sebagai kata sifat atau kata ganti yang digunakan bersama kata benda jamak yang dapat dihitung atau yang tak dapat dihitung.
- Example :
1. There is enough bread for breakfast
2. We haven’t enough butter
3. There are enough chairs in that room
4. Three oranges are enough for me
5. She has enough flour to make a cake
6. John has enough coffee for today
7. Lucy has bought enough vegetables
8. Goerge has got enough meat
9. Peter has learnt enough French
10. Rudi hasn’t drunk enough milk
I. Because and because of
- ”Because” adalah conjuction (kata sambung) yang berarti karena. Dalam written dan spoken English, “because” selalu diikuti oleh Subject + Verb. “Because” juga menghubungkan dua klausa (kalimat) yang memiliki bentuk tense (waktu) yang sejenis.
- Example :
1. We decided to stay at home because the weather was bad.
2. She was absent from class because her cold was worse.
3. I came here because this is a good school
4. I went to sleep because I was tired.
5. Maria left the party because she was feeling sick.
- “because of” berarti disebabkan atau dengan alasan yang fungsinya sama dengan ”because.” Berbeda dengan “because” yang diikuti oleh Subjek + Verb, ”because of” selalu diikuti oleh Noun (kata benda).
- Example :
1. We decided to stay at home because of the weather.
2. She was absent from class because of her cold.
3. I had to go early to the office because of the meeting.
4. I feel so sad because of his death.
5. He was angry because his car has stolen.

Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 # (Tugas 2)

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Nama : Tedy Hardyansyah
Npm : 10209357
Kelas : 4 EA 17
Tugas ke 2 : Modals, Countable Noun and Uncountable Noun
Dosen : R. OEGIH SUGESTI
Matkul : Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 #

I. MODALS
A. Can
1) (+) He can speak English well.
(-) He can’t speak English well.
(?) Can he speak English well?
2) (+) My younger sister can walk on the wall
(-) My younger sister can’t walk on the wall
(?) Can My younger sister walk on the wall?
3) (+) Ican swim.
(-) I can’t swim.
(?) Can i swim?
4) (+) He can swim.
(-) He can’t swim.
(?) Can he swim?
5) (+) You can go home now.
(-) You can’t go home now.
(?) Can you go home now?
B. May
1) (+) We may go to the market
(-) We may not go to the market
(?) May we go to the market?
2) (+) I may smoke here
(-) I may not smoke here
(?) May i smoke here?
3) (+) You may go home now.
(-) You may not go home now.
(?) May you go home now?
4) (+) I may come in
(-) I may not come in
(?) May i come in?
5) (+) You may smoke here if you like.
(-) You may not smoke here if you like.
(?) May you smoke here if you like?
C. Must
1) (+) We must say goodbye now.
(-) We must not say goodbye now.
(?) Must we say goodbye now?
2) (+) They must walk to school
(-) They mustn’t walk to school
(?) They mustn’t walk to school
3) (+) You must meet her.
(-) You must not meet her.
(?) Must you meet her?
4) (+) You must break the school rules.
(-) You must not break the school rules.
(?) Must you break the school rules?
5) (+) They must disrupt the work more than necessary
(-) They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary
(?) Must they disrupt the work than necessary ?
D. Might
1) (+) They might give us a 10% discount.
(-) They might not give us a 10% discount.
(?) Might they give us a 10% discount?
2) (+) Neno might call us today.
(-) Neno might not call us today.
(?) Might Neno call us today?
3) (+) Tom might be in Jakarta now.
(-)Tom might not be in Jakarta now.
(?)Might Tom be in Jakarta now?
4) (+) They might take this pen
(-) They might not take this pen
(?) Might they take this pen?
5) (+) Mr. Prabowo Subianto might join the next president election
(-) Mr. Prabowo Subianto mightn’t join the next president election
(?) Might Mr. Prabowo Subianto join the next president election ?

E. Should
1) (+) We should sort out this problem at once
(-) We should not sort out this problem at once
(?) Should we sort out this problem at once ?
2) (+) We should go there
(-) We shouln’t go there.
(?) Should we go there?
3) (+) They should be there tomorrow.
(-) They shouldn’t be there tomorrow.
(?) Should they be there tomorrow?
4) (+) We should do something now.
(-) We shouldn’t do something now.
(?) Should we do something now?
5) (+) I think we should check everything again
(-) I think we should not check everything again
(?) should I think we check everything again ?
F. Could
1) (+) I could borrow your dictionary.
(-) I could not borrow your dictionary.
(?) Could I borrow your dictionary?
2) (+) He could come yesterday
(-) He couldn’t come yesterday
(?) Could he come yesterday?
3) (+) My mother could speak six languages.
(-) My mother couldn’t speak six languages.
(?) Could My mother speak six languages?
4) (+) She could be at home now.
(-) She couldn’t be at home now.
(?) Could she be at home now?
5) (+) She could do that.
(-) She couldn’t do that.
(?) Could she do that?
G. Ought to
1) (+) She ought to come here again.
(-) She ought not to come here again.
(?) Ought she to come here again?
2) (+) She ought to be here now.
(-) She ought not to be here now.
(?) Ought she to be here now?
3) (+) You ought to drink and drive.
(-) You ought not to drink and drive.
(?) Ought you to drink and drive?
4) (+) You ought to do your homework every day.
(-) You ought not to do your homework every day.
(?) Ought you to do your homework every day?
5) (+) John ought to have gone to the dentist yesterday
(-) John ought not to have gone to the dentist yesterday
(?) Ought John to have gone to the dentist yesterday?

H. Had Better
1) (+) You had better take care of that cut on your hand soon
(-) You hadn’t better take care of that cut on your hand soon
(?) Had you better take care of that cut on your hand soon ?
2) (+) You had better study hard
(-) You hadn’t better study hard
(?) Had you better study hard?
3) (+) You had better work on Sundays
(-) You had not better work on Sundays
(?) Had you better work on Sundays?
4) (+) You had better work hard
(-) You had not better wor hard
(?) Had you better work hard?
5) (+) She had better play at home.
(-) She had not better play at home.
(?) Had she better play at home?
I. Will
1) (+) I will get back to you first thing on Monday
(-) I will not get back to you first thing on Monday
(?) Will I get back to you first thing on Monday?
2) (+) I will probably go to SMA Harapan next week.
(-) I will not probably go to SMA Harapan next week.
(?) Will I probably go to SMA Harapan next week?
3) (+) They will come here on time
(-) They will not come here on time
(?) Will they come here on time?
4) (+) Tom will be invited to the picnic
(-) Tom will not be invited to the picnic
(?) Will Tom be invited to the picnic?
5) (+) You will help me.
(-) You will not help me.
(?) Will you help me?
J. Would
1) (+) You would like to come with me
(-) You would not like to come with me
(?) Would you like to come with me?
2) (+) You would post this letter for me.
(-) You would not post this letter for me.
(?) Would you post this letter for me?
3) (+) You would like a cup of coffee
(-) You would not like a cup of coffee
(?) Would you like a cup of coffee?
4) (+) I would like to eat.
(-) I would not like to eat.
(?) Would I like to eat?
5) (+) He would be punished before he escaped.
(-) He would not be punished before he escaped.
(?) Would he be punished before he escaped?
K. Have to
1) (+) I have to go home now.
(-) I haven’t to go home now.
(?) Have you to go home now ?
2) (+) I have to go Jakarta right now
(-) I haven’t to go Jakarta right now
(?) Have you to go Jakarta right now ?
3) (+) She have to go Bandung tommorow.
(-) She haven’t to go Bandung tommorow.
(?) Have she to go Bandung tommorow?
4) (+) He have to drink water.
(-) He haven’t to drink water.
(?) Have he to drink water?
5) (+) Toni have to playing card.
(-) Toni haven’t to playing card.
(?) Have Tonito playing card?
L. Prefer
1) (+) Andi prefer coffe to tea.
(-) Andi prefer not coffe to tea.
(?) Does Andi prefer coffe to tea?
2) (+) Anna prefer table tennis to basketball.
(-) Anna prefer not table tennis to basketball.
(?) Does Anna prefer table tennis to basketball?
3) (+) She prefer cake to bread.
(-) She prefer not cake to bread.
(?) Does she prefer cake to bread?
4) (+) Rizal prefer playing to study.
(-) Rizal prefer not playing to study.
(?) Does Rizal prefer playing to study?
5) (+) Ani prefer cat to dog.
(-) Ani prefer not cat to dog.
(?) Does Ani prefer cat to dog?
M. Like Better
1) (+) He likes table tennis better than basketball.
(-) He doesn’t like table tennis better than basketball.
(?) Does he like table tennis better than basketball ?
2) (+) He like playing football better than basketball.
(-) He doesn’t like playing football better than basketball.
(?) Does he like playing football better than basketball?
3) (+) Dani like study better than palying.
(-) Dani doesn’t like study better than palying.
(?) Does Dani like study better than palying?
4) (+) Sofie like coffe better than tea.
(-) Sofie doesn’t like coffe better than tea.
(?) Does Sofie like coffe better than tea?
5) (+) Andi like cat better than dog.
(-) Andi doesn’t like cat better than dog.
(?) Does Andi like cat better than dog?
N. Would Rather
1) (+) Student would rather run than go jogging.
(-) Student would not rather run than go jogging.
(?) Would student rather run than go jogging?
2) (+) She would rather do the test at home than at school.
(-) She would not rather do the test at home than at school.
(?) Would she rather do the test st home than at school?
3) (+) He would rather be a doctor than a president.
(-) He would not rather be a doctor than a president.
(?) Would he rather be a doctor than a president?
4) (+) Yoga would rather playing football than basketball.
(-) Yoga would not rather playing football than basketball.
(?) Would Yoga rather playing football than baskerball?
5) (+) Students would rather study English than mathematics
(-) Students wouldn’t rather study English than mathematics
(?) Would students rather study English than mathematics?

II. Countable Nouns
1. I have to brothers, Jhon and Michael.
2. I’ve got a problem with the bicycle.
3. Do you like these photos?
4. I’m going out for five minutes.
5. We sell some chairs, tables, and desks.
6. I have some pennies, nickels, and dimes in my pocket.
7. She is wearing four rings, six bracelets, and a necklace.
8. We saw beautiful mountains, fields, and lakes on our trip.
9. We build two houses and a hotel in this town.
10. Bottles can break.

III. Uncountable Nouns
1. I have some money in my pocket.
2. Brenda likes to wear jewelry.
3. We saw beautiful scenery in Bali yesterday.
4. Would you like to buy some food?
5. I put some sugar in my coffee.
6. I wish you luck.
7. Sunshine is warm and cheerful.
8. I wish you happiness and health in your life.
9. Tom is studying chemistry, history, and English.
10. Gold and iron are metals.

Article

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Foods That Cause Acne

Artikel-bahasainggris.blogspot.com – Foods That Cause Acne. Acne is one of the most hated enemy by everyone, especially women. Acne is not including a dangerous disease. But its presence is very annoying, though acne is not harmful but should we treat and handle well.
Acne is caused by clogged pores due to overactive oil glands. Although many medical experts who denied any connection between acne with the food we eat, there’s no harm in avoiding some foods that supposedly can trigger acne.

Here are some foods can cause acne:

1. Sugar and Chocolate
Chocolate may be one of the most food trigger acne. Archives of Dermatology published a study which explains that the food has a high Glycemic Index scale, usually in processed carbohydrates such as sugar can cause the appearance of acne due to increased hormone levels.

2. Milk
Some studies show a high milk intake may be associated with the appearance of acne. A Harvard study found that teens who drink milk more than two servings a day are more likely to suffer from severe acne. That is because the increase in growth hormone which causes the sebaceous glands in the skin become clogged.

3. Iodine
Iodine may be one factor in the appearance of acne, such as skin oil glands which can irritate skin that is prone to acne. Iodine can be found in fish and shellfish because sea water contains iodine. In addition other sources comes from iodized salt which is a component of several types of canned food.

4.Caffeine and Alcohol
Caffeine is considered to trigger the appearance of acne because it can affect hormone levels produced by the body. Some sources of caffeine are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate. In addition, alcohol also causes an increase in hormones, particularly testosterone can cause acne more often.

5. Food Allergy Triggers
Skin problems often arise due to food allergies, especially milk and eggs. Acne appears due to the immune system tries to fight the poison that is felt. An allergist has diagnosed and confirmed the relationship of food allergy with severe acne.

6. Fruit and Vegetable Characteristically Acid
Some fruits and vegetables that are acidic can cause the appearance of acne, such as carrots, cucumbers, oranges, and lettuce. The acidity of the body can cause the appearance of acne, because it should be avoided.

Conjunctions

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A.Neither … Nor

1.Neither the students nor Toni is watching TV now.
2.Neihter my friends nor my mother sweeps the floor.
3.Neither Ali nor Ahmad likes football.
4.Neither I nor you will be able to finish this work.
5.Neither my sister nor my brothers are in Makssar.
6.Neither Tommy nor Tommy’s friends are going to visit me tonight.
7.Neither Thomas nor his friends do not come to the party.
8.Neither Riko nor Ahmad comes to school late.
9.Neither Eti nor I like this course.
10.Neither Yayat nor two of his friends are attending the class now.

B.Either … Or

1.Either Toni or the Students are watching TV.
2.Either my mother or my friends sweep the floor every day.
3.Either the cats or the dog eats the fish.
4.Either she or you are smart.
5.Either Alex or his sisters have washed the dishes.
6.Either Tommy or Tommy’s friends are going to visit me tonight.
7.Either you speak English or you go back.
8.Either Sally or her friends are Junior High School students.
9.Either Rika or Mia forgets to bring dictionary.
10.Either Juli or Jenny has seen the Ayat-Ayat Cinta

C.Both of…

1.Both of the cars are too expensive to buy now.
2.Both of them are hungry.
3.Both of these jackets are good.
4.Both of us were frightened.
5.Both of these restaurants are very good.
6.Both of them the girl had a pretty face.
7.Both of them are very smart boy.
8.Both of them are very tasty food.
9.Both of them home are very large.
10.Both of them the car was broken.

TENSES

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A. TENSES

1. PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSES
*Rumus:
1. Positif : S+V.ing+O
2. Negatif : S+do/does+not+V1+O
3. Introgatif : Do/does +S+V1+O
*Example:
1. (+) I am teaching English at the first grade of SMK IMMANUEL 2
(-) I am not teaching English at the first grade of SMK IMMANUEL 2
(?) Am I teaching English at the first grade of SMK IMMANUEL 2?

2. (+) you are writing present continous now
(-) you are not writing present continous now
(?) are you writing present continous now?

3. (+) we are learning tenses now
(-) we are not learning tenses now
(?) are we learning tenses now?

4. (+) I am going to school now
(-) I am not going to school now
(?) Am I going to school now?

5. (+) John and James are running now
(-) John and James are not running now
(?) Are john and james running now?

6. (+) I am going to Jakarta Now
(-) I am not going to Jakarta now
(?) Am I going to Jakarta now?

7. (+) Rini is working right now
(-) Rini is not working right now
(?) Does Rini working right now?

8. (+) Iam today teaching English
(-)Iam today not teaching English
(?) Am I today teaching English?

9. (+) Purba is writing now but he will explain soon
(-) Purba is not writing now but he will explain soon
(?) Does Purba writing now but he will explain soon?

10. (+) The ships are sailing
(-) The ships are not sailing
(?) Are the ships sailing?

2. PRESENT TENSES
*Rumus:
1) Positif (+) = S+V1(es/s)+O
2) Negatif (-) = S+Do/does+Not+V1+O
3) Introgatif(?) =Do/does+S+V1+O

*Example:
1. (+) He writes a letter every month
(-) He doesn’t writes a letter every month
(?) Does he writes a letter every month?

2. (+) She teaches English every week
(-) She doesn’t teaches English every week
(?) Does she teaches English every week?

3. (+) They studys matematic every day
(-) They don’t studys matematic every day
(?) Do they studys matematic every day?

4. (+) She works in the office every Monday to Saturday
(-) She doesn’t works in the office every Monday to Saturday
(?) Does she works in the office every Monday to Saturday?

5. (+) They go to Jakarta every years
(-) They don’t go to Jakarta every years
(?) Do they go to Jakarta every years?

6. (+) She likes eating out
(-) She doesn’t like eating out
(?) Does she like eating out?

7. (+)The children are naughty.
(-)The children aren’t naughty
(?)Are the children naughty?

8. (+)He is works every day
(-) He is not works every day
(?) Is he works every day?

9. (+) A week has seven day
(-) A week has not seven day
(?) Has a week seven day?

10. (+) He arrives from Osaka at 1 pm.
(-)He doesn’t arrives from Osaka at 1 pm.
(?)Does he arrive from Osaka at 1 pm?

3. PAST TENSES
*Rumus:
1. Positif (+) : S+V2+O
2.Negatif (-) : S+Did not+V2+O
3.Introgatif (?): Did+S+V2+O

*Example:
1. (+) Sarah invite me last week
(-) Sarah did not invite last week
(?) Did Sarah invite last week?

2. (+) I went to Jakarta yesterday
(-) I don’t went to Jakarta yesterday
(?) Do I went to Jakarta yesterday?

3. (+) You watch tv last week
(-) You did not watch tv last week
(?) Did you watch tv last week?

4. (+) I call him.
(-) I didn’t call him.
(?) Did i call him ?

5. (+) It rain since at five o’clock
(-) It did not rain since at five o’clock
(?) Did it rain since at five o’clock?

6. (+) I went yesterday
(-) I did not went yesterday
(?) Did I went yesterday?

7. (+) The teacher came
(-) The teacher didn’t came
(?) Did the teacher came?

8. (+) I was a stamp collector
(-) I wasn’t a stamp collector
(?) Was I a stamp collector ?

9. (+) The hunter shot the bear.
(-) The hunter didn’t shoot the bear.
(?) Did the hunter shoot the bear?

10 (+) She drink water.
(-) She didn not drink water.
(?)Did she drink water ?

4. PAST CONTINOUS TENSES
*Rumus:
1. Positif (+): S+was/were+vVing+O
2. Negatif (-): S+was/were+not+v.ing+o
3. introgatif (?): was/were+S+v.ing+o

*Examp;e:
1. (+)The third year student were sitting behind the teacher’s yesterday
(-) The third year student were not sitting behind the teacher’s yesrterday
(?) Were the third year student sitting behind the teacher’s yesterday?

2. (+) He was playing football yesterday
(-) He was not playing football yesterday
(?) was he playing football yesterday?

3. (+) They were working in the office yesterday
(-) They were not working in the office yesterday
(?) Were they working in the office yesterday?

4. (+) Tuti was reading a novel when I come yesterday
(-) Tuti was not reading a novel when I come yesterday
(?) was Tuti reading a novel when I come yesterday?

5. (+) They were studying Biologi at ten O’clock last Friday
(-) They were not studying Biologi at ten o’clock last Friday
(?) were they studying Biologi at temn o’clock last Friday?

6. (+) I was going to garden when it began to rain
(-) I was not going to garden when it began to rain
(?) Was I going to garden when it gegan to rain?

7. (+) at three o’clock last week, She was reading
(-) at three o’clock last week,She was not reading
(?) at three o’clock last week,was she reading?

8. (+) I was reading a book, while Ani writing a letter
(-) I was not reading a book,while Ani writing a letter
(?) Was I reading a book,while Ani writing a letter?

9. (+) The team was running
(-) The team was not running
(? Was the team running ?

10 (+) The workers were queuing
(-) The workers weren’t queuing
(?) Were the workers queuing

5. PRESENT PERFECT TENSES
*Rumus:
1. Posituf (+) : S+have/has+V3+O
2. Negatif (-) : S+have/has+not+V3+O
3. Introgatif (?): Have/has+S+V3+O

*Example:
1. (+) We have learned English for two years
(-) We have not learned English for two years
(?) Have we learned English for two years?

2. (+) She has taught English since 1988
(-) She has not taught English since 1988
(?) Has she taught English since 1988?

3.(+) He has been to Jakarta before
(-) He has not been to Jakarta before
(?) Has he been to Jakarta before?

4.(+) He has a written a letter for thirty minutes
(-) He has not a written a letter for thirty minutes
(?) Has he a written a letter for thirty minutes?

5.(+) I have just spoken to him
(-) I have not just spoken to him
(?) Have I just spoken to him?

6.(+) I have gone to school
(-) I have not gone to school
(?) Have I gone to school?

7. (+) I have learned in the Immanuel school since 2000
(-) I have not learned in the Immanuel school since 2000
(?) Have I learned in the Immanuel school since 2000?

8. (+) I have just read my book
(-) I have not just read my book
(?) Have I just read my book?

9. (+) I have read
(-) I have not read
(?) Have I read?

10 (+) He has left
(-) He hasn’t left
(?) Has he left ?


6. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSES
*Rumus:
1. Positif (+): S+have/has+been+Ving+O
2. Negatif (-): S+have/has+not+been+Ving+O
3. Itrogatif (?): Have/has+S+been+Ving+O

*Example:
1. (+) I have been going to Pantai Samudra for my holiday since 2002
(-) I have not going to Painting Samudra for my holiday since 2002
(?) Have I going to Pantai Samudra for my holiday since 2002?

2. (+) Mr.Burhanudin Simanjuntak has been teaching at SMK IMMANUEL 2 since 2003
(-) Mr.Burhanudin Simanjuntak has not been teaching at SMK IMMANUEL 2 since 2003
(?) Has Mr.Burhanudin Simanjuntak been teaching at SMK IMMANUEL 2 since 2003?

3. (+) She has been painting every day for a long time
(-) She has not painting every day for a long time
(?) Has she painting every day or along time?

4. (+) It has been raining since at six o’clock
(-) It has not been raining since at six o’clock
(?) Has it been raining since at six o’clock?

5. (+) The girl has been crying since she was a child
(-) The girl has not been crying since she was a child
(?) Has the girl been crying since she was a child?

6. (+) I have been going to my grandmother home for my holiday since 1990
(-) I have not been going to my grandmother home for my holiday since 1990
(?) Have I been going to my grandmother home for my holiday since 1990?

7. (+) I have been studying here since 2000
(-) I have not been studying here since 2000
(?) Have I been studying here since 2000?

8. (+) She has been driving
(-) She has not been driving
(?) Has she been driving ?

9. (+) The toddlers have been sleeping
(-) The toddlers haven’t been sleeping
(?) Have the toddlers been sleeping?

10 (+) The toddlers have been playing cards.
(-) The toddlers haven’t been playing a cards.
(?) Have the toddlers been playing a cards?

7. PAST PERFECT TENSES
*Rumus:
1. Positif (+): S+had+V3+O
2. Negatif (-): S+had not+V3+o
3. Intrigattif (?):Had+S+V3+O
*Example:
1. (+) The train had left before I arrived
(-) The train had not left before I arrived
(?) Had the train left before I arrived?

2. (+) I had copied the lesson before she come home
(-) I had not copied the lesson before she come home
(?) Had I copied the lesson before she come home?

3. (+) I had come home before I week three
(-) I had not come home before I week three
(?) Had I come home before I week three?

4. (+) I had written this lesson before he called me
(-) I had not written a lesson before he called me
(?) Had I written a lesson before he called me?

5. (+) When my brother arrived, I had painted my car
(-) When my brother arrived, I had not painted my car
(?) When my brother arrived, had I painted my car?

6. (+) I had come home before I month three
(-) I had not come home before I month three
(?) Had I come home before I month three?

7. (+) By the end of the month, she had lived here
(-) By the end of the month, she had not lived here
(?) Had by the end of the month, she lived here?

8. (+) My brother had slept
(-) My brother hadn’t slept
(?) Had my brother come ?

9. (+) They had come
(-) They hadn’t come
(?) Had they come ?

10 (+) My brother had slept
(-) My brother hadn’t slept
(?) Had my brother slept?


8. FUTURE TENSES
a. FUTURE PERFECT TENSES
*Rumus:
1. Positif (+): S+will/shall+have+V3+O
2. negatif (-) : S+will/shall+not+have+V3+O
3. Introgatif (?): Will/shall+S+have+V3+O

*Example:
1. (+) She will have written his lesson by time she go out
(-) She will not have written his lesson by time she go out
(?) Will she have written his lesson by time she go out?

2. (+) The game will finished by the time he get three
(-) The game will not finished by the time he get three
(?) Will the game finished by the time he get three?

3. (+) I shall have written a letter by eight o’clock tomorrow
(-) I shall not have written a letter by eight o’clock tomorrow
(?) Shall I have written a letter by eight o’clock tomorrow?

4. (+) We shall have played a basketball when he came
(-) We shall not have played a basketball when he came
(?) Shall we have played a basketball when he came?

5. (+) When my uncle comes tomorrow, my grandmother will have left my house
(-) When my uncle comes tomorrow, my grandmother will not have left my house
(?) When my uncle comes tomorrow, will my grandmother have left my house?


b. FUTURE CONTINOUS TENSES
*Rumus:
1. Positif (+): S+shall/will+be+Ving+O
2. Negatif (-): S+shall/will+not+be+Ving+O
3. Introgatif (?): Shall/will+S+be+ving+O

*Example:
1. (+) I shall be waiting for you in this station at four o’clock
(-) I shall not be waiting for you in this station at four o’clock
(?) Shall I be waiting for you in this station at four o’clock?

2. (+) I shall be studying at this time tomorrow
(-) I shall not be studying at this time tomorrow
(?) Shall I be studying at this time tomorrow?

3. (+) I shall be waiting for you in this airport at three o’clock tomorrow evening
(-) I shall not be waiting for you in this airport at three o’clock tomorrow evening
(?) Shall I be waiting for you in this airport at three o’clock tomorrow evening?

4. (+) He will be working at this time tomorrow
(-) He will not be working at this time tomorrow
(?) Will he be working at this time tomorrow?

5. (+) She will going to be school together at seven o’clcok tomorrow
(-) She will not going to be school together at seven o’clock tomorrow
(?) Will she going to be school together at seven o’clock tomorrow

BAB 8. HAK PEKERJA

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HAK PEKERJA

MACAM-MACAM HAK PEKERJA

Hak Atas Pekerjaan

Hak atas pekerjaan merupakan hak azasi manusia,karena.:

Kerja melekat pada tubuh manusia. Kerja adalah aktifitas tubuh dan karena itu tidak bisa dilepaskan atau difikirkan lepas dari tubuh manusia.
Kerja merupakan perwujudan diri manusia, melalui kerja manusia merealisasikan dirinya sebagai manusia dan sekaligus membangun hidup dan lingkungannya yang lebih manusiawi. Maka melalui kerja manusia menjadi manusia, melalui kerja mamnusia menentukan hidupnya sendiri sebagai manusia yang mandiri.
Hak atas kerja juga merupakan salah satu hak asasi manusia karena kerja berkaitan dengan hak atas hidup, bahkan hak atas hidup yang layak.

Hak atas pekerjaan ini tercantum dalam undang-undang dasar 1945 pasal 27 ayat 2 yang menyatakan bahwa “Tiap-tiap warga negara berhak atas pekerjaan dan penghidupan yang layak bagi kemanusiaan.

Hak atas upah yang adil

Hak atas upah yang adil merupakan hak legal yang diterima dan dituntut seseorang sejak ia mengikat diri untuk bekerja pada suatu perusahaan. Dengan hak atas upah yang adil sesungguhnya bahwa:

Bahwa setiap pekerja berhak mendapatkan upah, artinya setiap pekerja berhak untuk dibayar.
Setiap orang tidak hanya berhak memperoleh upah, ia juga berhak memperoleh upah yang adil yaitu upah yang sebanding dengan tenaga yang telah disumbangkannya.
Bahwa perinsipnya tidak boleh ada perlakuan yang berbeda atau diskriminatif dalam soal pemberian upah kepada semua karyawan, dengan kata lain harus berlaku prinsip upah yang sama untuk pekerjaan yang sama.

Hak untuk berserikat dan berkumpul

Untuk bisa memperjuangkan kepentingannya, khususnya hak atas upah yang adil, pekerja harus diakui dan dijamin haknya untuk berserikat dan berkumpul. Yang bertujuan untuk bersatu memperjuangkan hak dan kepentingan semua anggota mereka. Menurut De Geroge, dalam suatu masyarakat yang adil, diantara perantara-perantara yang perlu untuk mencapai suatu sistem upah yang adil, serikat pekerja memainkan peran yang penting.

Ada dua dasar moral yang penting dari hak untuk berserikat dan berkumpul :

Ini merupakan salah satu wujud utama dari hak atas kebebasan yang merupakan salah satu hak asasi manusia.
Dengan hak untuk berserikat dan berkumpul, pekerja dapat bersama-sama secara kompak memperjuangkan hak mereka yang lain, khususnya atas upah yang adil.

Beberapa hal yang perlu dijamin dalam kaitan dengan hak atas keamanan, keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja:

Setiap pekerja berhak mendapatkan perlindungan atas keamanan, keselamatan dan kesehatan melalui program jaminan atau asuransi keamanan dan kesehatan yang diadakan perusahaan itu.

2. Setiap pekerja berhak mengetahui kemungkinan resiko yang akan dihadapinya dalam menjalankan pekerjaannya dalam bidang tertentu dalam perusahaan tersebut.

3. Setiap pekerja bebas untuk memilih dan menerima pekerjan dengan resiko yang sudah diketahuinya itu atau sebaiknya menolaknya.

Hak untuk diproses hukum secara sah

Hak ini terutama berlaku ketika seorang pekerja dituduh dan diancam dengan hukuman tertentu karena diduga melakukan pelanggaran atau kesalahan tertentu. pekerja tersebut wajib diberi kesempatan untuk mempertanggungjawabkan tindakannya, dan kalau ternyata ia tidak bersalah ia wajib diberi kesempatan untuk membela diri.

Hak untuk diperlakukan secara sama

Pada perinsipnya semua pekerja harus diperlakukan secara sama, secara fair. Artinya tidak boleh ada diskriminasi dalam perusahaan entah berdasarkan warna kulit, jenis kelamin, etnis, agama dan semacamnya, baik dalam sikap dan perlakuan, gaji, maupun peluang untuk jabatan, pelatihan atau pendidikan lebih lanjut.

Perbedan dalam hal gaji dan peluang harus dipertimbangkan secara rasional

Diskriminasi yang didasrkan pada jenis kelamin, etnis, agama dan semacamnya adalah perlakuan yang tidak adil.

Hak atas rahasia pribadi

Karyawan punya hak untuk dirahasiakan data pribadinya, bahkan perusahan harus menerima bahwa ada hal-hal tertentu yang tidak boleh diketahui oleh perusahaan dan ingin tetap dirahasiakan oleh karyawan.

Hak atas rahasia pribadi tidak mutlak, dalam kasus tertentu data yang dianggap paling rahasia harus diketahui oleh perusahaan atau akryawan lainnya, misalnya orang yang menderita penyakit tertentu. Ditakutkan apabila sewaktu-waktu penyakit tersebut kambuh akan merugikan banyak orang atau mungkin mencelakakan orang lain.

Umumnya yang dianggap sebagai rahasia pribadi dan karena itu tidak perlu diketahui dan dicampuri oleh perusahaan adalah persoalan yang menyangkut keyakinan religius, afiliasi dan haluan politik, urusan keluarga serta urusan sosial lainnya.

Hak atas kebebasan suara hati.

Pekerja tidak boleh dipaksa untuk melakukan tindakan tertentu yang dianggapnya tidak baik, atau mungkin baik menurut perusahaan jadi pekerja harus dibiarkan bebas mengikuti apa yang menurut suara hatinya adalah hal yang baik.

WHISTLE BLOWING

Whistle blowing adalah tindakan yang dilakukan oleh seseorang atau beberapa orang karyawan untuk membocorkan kecurangan entah yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan atau atasannya kepada pihak lain. Pihak yang dilapori itu bisa saja atasan yang lebih tinggi atau masyarakat luas.

Rahasia perusahaan adalah sesuatu yang konfidensial dan memang harus dirahasiakan, dan pada umumnya tidak menyangkut efek yang merugikan apa pun bagi pihak lain, entah itu masyarakat atau perusahaan lain.

Whistle blowing umumnya menyangkut kecurangan tertentu yang merugikan baik perusahaan sendiri maupun pihak lain, dan kalau dibongkar memang akan mempunyai dampak yang merugikan perusahaan, paling kurang merusak nama baik perusahaan tersebut.

Contoh whistle blowing adalah tindakan seorang karyawan yang melaporkan penyimpangan keuangan perusahaan. Penyimpangan ini dilaporkan pada pihak direksi atau komisaris. Atau kecurangan perusahaan yang membuang limbah industri ke sungai.

Ada dua macam whistle blowing :

Whistle blowing internal

2. Whistle blowing eksternal

BAB 7. ETIKA DISKRIMINASI PEKERJAAN

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ETIKA DISKRIMINASI PEKERJAAN
Sifat Diskriminasi Pekerjaan
Diskriminasi tenaga kerja berarti membuat keputusan (atau serangkaian keputusan) yang merugikan pegawai (atau calon pegawai) yang merupakan anggota kelompok tertentu karena adanya prasangka yang secara moral tidak dibenarkan terhadap kelompok tersebut.
Bentuk-bentuk Diskriminasi: Aspek Kesengajaan Dan Aspek Institusional
Untuk menganalisis berbagai bentuk diskriminasi dapat dibuat dengan membedakan tingkat di mana tindakan diskriminatif dilakukan secara sengaja dan terpisah dan tingkat di mana tindakan tersebut terjadi tidak disengaja atau terinstitusionalisasikan.
Tingkat Diskriminasi
Diskriminasi muncul apabila terdapat proporsi yang tidak seimbang atas anggota kelompok tertentu yang memegang jabatan yang kurang diminati dalam suatu institusi tanpa mempertimbangkan preferensi ataupun kemampuan mereka.
Perbandingan Penghasilan Rata-rata
Perbandingan penghasilan memberikan indikator paling sugestif atas diskriminasi.
Perbandingan penghasilan terjadi antara keluarga kulit putih dengan keluarga dari kaum minoritas, dan juga antar gender.
Penghasilan Kelompok Penghasilan Terendah
Kelompok penghasilan paling rendah menurut statistik berkorelasi dengan ras dan jenis kelamin.
Perbandingan Pekerjaan yang Diminati
Pada semua kelompok pekerjaan besar, persentase pria kulit putih yang memiliki pekerjaan dengan gaji yang lebih tinggi juga lebih besar, sementara kaum minoritas dan perempuan sebagian besar memiliki pekerjaan dengan gaji kecil dan kurang diminati.
Diskriminasi: Utilitas, Hak, dan Keadilan
Argumen yang menentang diskrimasi: (1) utilitarian, deskriminasi mengarahkan pada penggunaan sumber daya manusia secara tidak efisien; (2) hak, diskriminasi melanggar hak asasi manusia; (3) keadilan, diskriminasi mengakibatkan munculnya perbedaan distribusi keuntungan dan beban dalam masyarakat.
Praktik Diskriminasi
Tindakan yang dianggap diskriminatif: (1) rekrutmen, jika cenderung merekrut pegawai dari dari kelompok ras dan seksual yang sama dengan yang terdapat dalam perusahaan; (2) screening, jika tidak relevan dengan pekerjaan yang akan dilaksanakan; (3) kenaikan pangkat, jika perusahaan memisahkan evaluasi kerja pria kulit putih dengan pegawai perempuan dan pegawai dari kelompok minoritas; (4) kondisi pekerjaan, jika diberikan dalam jumlah yang tidak sama untuk orang –orang yang melaksanakan pekerjaan yang pada dasarnya sama; (5) PHK, memecat pegawai berdasarkan pertimbangan ras dan jenis kelamin.
Pelecehan Seksual
Kaum perempuan, seperti telah dicatat sebelumnya, merupakan korban dari salah satu bentuk diskriminasi yang terang-terangan dan koersif.
Di luar Ras dan Jenis Kelamin: Kelompok Lain
1. Diskriminasi terhadap pegawai yang lebih tua berdasarkan usia; (2) penderita cacat; (3) kaum gay atau transeksual; (4) pengidap AIDS; (5) pekerja kelebihan berat badan.
Tindakan Afirmatif
· Tindakan afirmatif dimaksudkan untuk mencapai distribusi yang lebih representatif dalam perusahaan dengan memberikan preferensi pada kaum perempuan dan kelompok minoritas.
· Inti dari program afirmatif adalah sebuah penyelidikan yang mendetail atas semua klasifikasi pekerjaan besar dalam perusahaan.
· Tujuan penyelidikan adalah untuk menentukan apakah jumlah pegawai perempuan dan minoritas dalam klasifikasi kerja tertentu lebih kecil dibandingkan yang diperkirakan dari tingkat ketersediaan tenaga kerja kelompok ini di wilayah tempat mereka direkrut,
Tindakan Afirmatif Sebagai Kompensasi
· Program tindakan afirmatif diinterpresentasikan sebagai salah satu bentuk ganti rugi yang diberikan kaum pria kulit putih kepada perempuan dan kelompok minoritas karena telah merugikan mereka secara tidak adil mendiskriminasikan mereka di masa lalu.
· Kelemahan prinsip ini mensyaratkan kompensasi hanya dari individu-individu yang secara sengaja merugikan orang lain, dan memberikan kompensasi hanya dari individu-individu yang dirugikan.
Tindakan Afirmatif Sebagai Intrumen untuk Mencapai Tujuan Sosial
Program tindakan afirmatif merupakan cara yang secara moral sah untuk mencapai tujuan keadilan, sekipun mungkin bukan merupakan cara yang secara moral diperlukan untuk tujuan-tujuan tersebut.
Penerapan Tindakan Afirmatif dan Penanganan Keberagaman
Keberhasilan atau kegagalan program tindakan afirmatif sebagian juga bergantung pada dukungan yang diberikan perusahaan pada kebutuhan untuk mencapai keberagaman secara rasial dan seksual dalam susunan tenaga kerja di perusahaan.
Gaji yang sebanding untuk Pekerjaan yang Sebanding
· Program nilai sebanding dimaksudkan untuk mengatasi masalah gaji rendah yang oleh mekanisme pasar selama ini cenderung selalu diberikan pada pegawai perempuan.
· Program nilai sebanding menilai setiap pekerjaan menurut tingkat kesulitan, persyaratan keahlian, pengalaman, akuntabilitas, risiko, persyaratan pengetahuan, tanggungjawab, kondisi kerja, dan semua faktor lain yang dianggap layak memperoleh kompensasi.